Zakharchuk T.V.  

"Scientific School" in library and information science in professional publications

1. Considerable interest in the scientific schools in the professional community has arisen only in recent years. In previous decades, the term is, of course, was used, but as a rule, in the anniversary articles and obituaries. However, he did not carry that meaning, which is to invest in it by sociologists of science, where the problem of the formation and development of scientific schools studied since the mid-1950s. At present, the attitude towards scientific school have changed considerably due to the introduction of programs to support scientific schools and the inclusion of schools in the list of criteria for certification of universities and research institutes. All this has led to the fact that the presence of the scientific school is becoming almost mandatory for every well-known scientist. Many scientists and science managers began to perceive scientific school as a "medal" and "crown" scientific career. And for those of ordinary skill belonging to a scientific school becomes an important feature of self-affirmation in the scientific community.
2. In recent years, professional printing, a considerable number of publications devoted to the scientific schools of library and information science. It is significant that there were two main centers for the study of scientific schools of library and information sciences cycle, one of which is located in St. Petersburg (SPbGUKI) and the other  in Novosibirsk (SPSTL). And if SPbGUKI this theme is developed in the last 3-4 years, the study SPSTL have a much longer history. The Library made a serious theoretical background in this area, as well as significant experience conducting applied research. That allows us to speak about the current direction of research with its own research programs and approaches to solving research problems.
3. On the other hand, in a stream of publications devoted to scientific schools there are those in which the scientific schools of a figure called a science, but their presence can not be proved. It appears that indicates the presence of a particular scientific school need, firstly, clearly understand the characteristics of this phenomenon, and, secondly, to conduct studies showing how the very existence of the school and those belonging to it or other specialists. The most productive method of this kind of research are bibliographic research (including bibliometric) and opinion polls as the leading representatives of the professional community, and representatives of the alleged scientific school.
4. We can talk about different approaches to the concept of «scientific school», disputes about this are in the sociology of science, and in each of the disciplines, trying to understand what is «scientific school» in their science. However, most experts no disagreement that: 1) the main feature of the scientific school  informal nature of its organization; 2) the basis of the scientific school is its research program, which becomes the basis of the scientific team activities; 3) mandatory condition for the existence of the scientific school is the presence of a leader, recognized by the professional community, to formulate its research program and in its implementation which attracted young scientists (his disciples); 4) The essence of the existence of the scientific school is to train new generations of scientists. In the school must be students who support the research program and the teachers are willing to participate in its development.
5. The presence of the scientific school is largely determined by the opinion and the professional community. Recognition of the scientific school in this or that scientist from the leading experts in a particular field of science can be the basis for further research.
6. It should also be noted the importance of a name that gets school in the professional community. Calling the school name great scientist, you should always understand what the research program is behind it, what other research programs in this area there. It is the struggle of research programs is the most effective engine of science. Therefore, the name of scientific school is of great importance to identify it in the scientific community and must necessarily be related to the research program leader. Scientific school is created when there is a problem within the scientific field, which a solution is ambiguous and different for different major academic leaders.
7. As we can see, the problem of studying scientific schools causes heated debate in the professional printing. There are plenty of outstanding issues that are important to consider in order to develop a more or less unified view of the scientific school in Library science and bibliology. It seems that the discussion will fruitful in the development of the theory of the formation of a scientific school and practice her identification. After all, in the clash of opinions are often born scientific truth.

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