Tikhonov S.S.  

Ecology of Russian old-timers in Siberia and ethnographic and archaeological research

ABSTRACT. In the article, the author deals with the problems of reconstruction of the economy, ecology, and demography of the rural population of the Tarа’s Irtysh region in the XVI-XVIII centuries. According to the author, the basis of such research is the data of archaeological excavations of settlements and burial grounds of Russian old-timers, analyzed using existing and well-tested methods. However, these reconstructions may be unreliable, since the archaeological materials are incomplete. This is due either to the fact that the archaeological site was excavated incomplete, or some data were destroyed over time, and did not come to the attention of scientists. Therefore, they need to be correlated with similar ethnographic or statistical data, among which demographic data are very important (sex and age structure, mortality, birth rate), the number and composition of the herd, the size and structure of the crop, yield, norms of consumption of various foods, income received by an individual farm, etc. There are at least two ways of reconstructions. One is based on broad analogies involving data originating, including from remote territories. The other is based on the use of materials collected in the same area where the excavations were carried out. Such materials are very difficult to find. However, in the series of publications published at the end of the XIX century, "Materials for studying the economic life of state peasants and foreigners in Western Siberia", these materials are abundant. This is what the author draws the attention of his colleagues to.

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