Shcherbakov N.   Shuteleva I.   Leonova T.  

Kremlin of Ufa (Ancient Ufa Fortress) as a historical and archaeological source: from Ufa District to the Republic of Bashkortostan

Reporter: Shcherbakov N.

This article provides Ufa Kremlin Studies The Ufa Kremlin (Ancient Ufa Fortress), which gave rise to the modern city of Ufa, was founded at the end of the 16th century. The territory chosen for the construction of the fortress was extremely difficult in landscape terms. Probably, this fact became decisive in choosing the location of one of the outposts of the Russian state at the turn of the 16th - 17th centuries. The hill, currently called the "Kremlin", is located on the high right bank of the river. Belaya ("Belaya Volozhka"), from the southeast it is limited by the river. Sutoloka, northwest - a deep ravine in which the river previously flowed. Foot "Kremlin" Hill, located at the confluence of the river. Bekaya River Sutoloka and r. Nogayka, was virtually uninterrupted with a possible siege. Abundant springs, at the foot of the fortress, provided the inhabitants of the Ufa Kremlin with drinking water, including in the event of possible attacks. Archaeological research conducted from 2011 to 2019 on the territory of the cultural heritage site of the fortified settlement of the Ufa Kremlin or the "Ancient Ufa Fortress" revealed interesting environmental features of the life of the first settlers of the city of Ufa. The use of interdisciplinary methods allowed us to comprehensively study both the geological features of the location and functioning of the fortress, the obtained anthropological material from the destroyed cemetery, and the material culture from the XVI - XVII centuries to a modern urban environment. The site occupied by the Ufa Kremlin is a fragment of the middle part of the river valley. Belaya River, articulating with the right-bank indigenous slope. Geomorphologically, this territory is completely located within the highest right-bank floodplain terrace. In 2018, N.B. Shcherbakov and I.A. Shuteleva exploration work was carried out, which revealed parts of the foundation of the fortress walls, which were composed of limestone slabs. Plates may have been mined nearby in quarries. Archaeological excavations of 2019 conducted in the northern part, under the base of the Kremlin Hill, presented material from the 16th - 18th centuries, and there were discovered finds related to the 19th - 20th centuries. fragments of porcelain without brands and with brands. Also in the destroyed cultural layer, fragments of glass products of the 19th - 20th centuries are found, these are various fragments of pharmacy vesicles of the 19th - 20th centuries.

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