Zagorulko A.V.  

The settlement system in the mountainous areas of Korea from the Neolithic till the 20 century.

A large area of the Korean Peninsula is occupied by mountain systems. Most of the population was concentrated in the plains of the west coast and in the narrow coastal strip of the east coast. The landscape and climate finally formed at the beginning of the Holocene, from this period it is possible to trace the development of adaptation in the lowland and mountainous regions according to archaeological sites. Neolithic cultures were concentrated at  river valleys in lowland areas (Amnokkan, Tedongan, Kymgani, Naktong, Tumangan), which were centers of distribution of agriculture with a high population density. Mountain areas were populated by mobile hunter-gatherer groups. The spread of agriculture in the mountains led to the concentration of settlements along the valleys of mountain rivers and some areas of the east coast. Bronze Age cultures settled on the sites of former Neolithic agricultural settlements. The emergence of irrigated agriculture and rice cultivation led to overpopulation of both plain and mountainous areas, which led to the fragmentation of old agricultural areas, the development of new sites in the mountains. It had affected the lifestyle, structure of settlements and dwellings. In the periods of the Three States and the United Silla, Koryo and Joseon, the mountainous areas were developed for various purposes - the construction of fortresses, the settlement of military settlers, as refuge from invasions and government pressure. In all periods, the population of the mountainous regions differed from the plain inhabitants mainly in the way of life, economy, and material culture. Such features provide an opportunity for ethno-archaeological reconstruction based on regional analysis.

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