Киреев С.М.  

Horse burials at the necropolis of the Bystryanskaya culture Maima-VII

One of the characteristic features of the Bystryanskaya culture of the early iron age of the middle of the VI-II centuries BC, located in the Northern foothills of the Altai, are rare, but quite characteristic burials of a person with an accompanying burial of a horse. The theses provide a brief overview of new materials originating from the necropolis of the bystryan culture of Maima-VII. Ten objects containing horse bones were studied in mounds and burials with mounds destroyed by anthropogenic impact. Parts of horse carcasses, as well as individual bones and teeth were found in several burials. In most of the burials, details of horse harness were found, only 26 copies, which significantly complements this complex of materials of the Bystryanskaya culture. Among the finds were found horn and bone psalias, iron and bronze bits, horn fasteners, belt distributors and other items of harness. The most complete is the set from mound 215, which contains archaic bronze bits, horn psalias with images of a wolf and a Griffin, and Fang-shaped suspension bridles. The rite of accompanying horse burial at the Maima-VII burial ground, as well as in the mounds of the previously published Maima-XIX monument, is arranged according to one scheme. The horses are laid on their stomachs with their legs bent on a low step in the southern part of the grave. The horse is separated from the human burial by a partition made of wood, earth, and other materials. Presumably, all burials on the studied monument belong to the early period of the Bystryanskaya culture and date back to the end of the VI-V centuries BC. the Published information supplements the materials for studying the cultural processes occurring in the Altai in the early iron age.

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