Tretyakov E.A.  

The problem of the spatial adaptation of the population of the developed Middle Ages in the Trans-Urals

This article is devoted to the study of the settlement structure of the population of the developed Middle Ages of the Trans-Urals. Based on the location, all archaeological sites were divided into three groups:  sites on the terrace, in the floodplain, on the shore. However, there is no strict pattern between the landscape and the configuration of the settlements. This fact allows us to assume that all settlements had an equal value. However, taking into account the fact that the fortified settlements were more important than ordinary settlements, we believe that they performed the functions of administrative and craft centers.
Having calculated the average distance between the fortified settlements, we came to the conclusion that the fortified settlements were located at an equal distance from each other in every 19-25 kilometers. Consequently, the territory of the Tobol basin was inhabited by a "continuous network". This arrangement of fortified settlements was determined by the boundaries of resource zones of different communities. The economic activities of each community took place within these zones. Fortified settlements were often located on different banks of rivers, which may mean that the boundaries of ancestral lands were located along watersheds. Ordinary settlements were also located on the watersheds and performed the functions of seasonal and fishing settlements.
Burial grounds and places of worship were located in the vicinity of fortified settlements. We can say that the burial grounds were located near the fortifications and were patrimonial cemeteries.

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