Buzhilova A.P.   Карасева Н.М.  

Life expectancy and stress in the early stages of ontogenesis on the example of Arctic groups (environmental aspects)

Reporter: Buzhilova A.P.

The severe environmental conditions of the Arctic area link the traditional way of life indigenous peoples with the environment. The prognosis of increased signs of stress in severe living conditions requires a special assessment, and it not limited of formalization of the frequency of occurrence of a particular pathology in historical groups. The paper presents the experience of analyzing two indicators of physiological stress (fluctuating asymmetry of the teeth and enamel hypoplasia), taking into account the life expectancy. Both signs are evaluated on the permanent teeth of adult individuals, but indicators reflect the effects of physiological stress in a child time, as they are formed during the growth of dental crowns in the range of about 2 to 15 years. The material for the work was the collection of skulls from the funds housed in the Research Institute and the Museum of Anthropology, Moscow State University. The arctic groups of the 18th-19th centuries were studied (coastal Eskimos and Chukchi, as well as Khanty and Mansi). A total of 404 skulls were examined. The data give us opportunity to suggest that in a time of historical adaptation, the indigenous peoples of the North acquired specific physiological complexes that allowed them to survive in the difficult conditions of the Arctic area with less human loss. The population exploiting different environmental management models was united by common advantages - high stress resistance and the ability to quickly restore the population size against the background of active economic growth or even a change in environmental management model.

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