Filippova V.  

The traditional land use and ecological culture of the Dolgan in Yakutia

ABSTRACT: The problems of studying and preserving traditional nature land use in the North of Russia are actualized by growing environmental challenges. In this light, the appeal to the ecological traditions of the indigenous peoples of the North is reasoned. Effective development and improvement of methods of rational use of natural resources, protection of the natural environment and environmental safety are possible only if the historical traditions of relations with nature of all ethnic groups living on this territory are taken into account. The Dolgans, an indigenous ethnic group of the North that lives on the territory of the Khatango-Anabar region, are among those peoples who have long maintained and maintain a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, which is recognized as a component of an integral culture of nature land use. The development of the territory of the Central Siberian plateau by indigenous peoples with its variety of natural landscapes took place in different historical periods. At the same time, each ethnic group, adapting to the environment, occupied a certain niche, creating its own ethno-cultural landscape. On the territory of the Khatango-Anabar region, three types of cultural traditions of nature land use are most clearly present: Dolgan, Evenk, and Yakut. The relationship between the main cultures in this territory is marked by the absence of acute inter – ethnic conflicts, which was determined by the ecological characteristics of the cultures-different modes of nature land use. The long historical period of adaptation of the Dolgan ethnic group to the natural environment of the Khatango-Anabar region allowed us to develop their own system of nature land use, based on the principles of linking the culture of the ethnic group with the environment, a rational balance of use and consumption of natural resources. Life support, reproduction, demographic and socio-economic well-being of the Dolgans is based on the use of biological resources of the environment - reindeer herding, hunting and fishing. Based on unpublished and published sources, the report analyzes changes in the traditional nature land use of the Dolgans living in the Anabar river basin in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) from the early 1930s to the present.

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