Bulakova E.A.   Костомаров В.М.  

The location system of the Bronze Age sites in the Karagayly-Ayat river valley (South Ural)

Reporter: Bulakova E.A.

The report will present the results of a spatial analysis of the Bronze Age archaeological sites located in the Kartalinsky district of the Chelyabinsk region (Southern Urals). A study of the location of settlements and burial grounds in this region made it possible to build a model for the resettlement of groups from the Bronze Age in the Karagayly-Ayat river valley. Our analysis of the localization of objects by cartography and GIS methods allowed us to identify some trends in the development of the surrounding landscape by the carriers of Sintashtinskaya culture, Petrovskaya culture, Srubno-alakul'skii culture type and cultures of the late stage of the Bronze Age (Cherkaskul'skaya and Alekseevsko-sargarinskaya). The research methodology included the formalization of data and its formation in several records of a single structured file, followed by its processing in the ArcGIS Pro software product. In addition, thematic layers were formed, including data elements of remote sensing of the earth, hydrography and isometry of the region, raster and vector auxiliary data. The valley settlement systems that we have identified in these conditional stages are correlated with an economic strategy based on near-livestock cattle breeding. And also, with the socio-demographic situation, reconstructed by researchers for bronze societies of the steppe Trans-Urals. The constructed model allows us to demonstrate a phased process of settlement of the territory, from local development of the middle course of the river to the subsequent location of settlements along the entire valley. The results obtained are consistent with the statement on the new character of the carriers of the Sintashtinskaya culture in the South Trans-Urals and complement the general picture of the way of life of the societies of the past. The study is based on the analysis of the maximum number of sources available to us from archival materials and literature on the Karagayly-Ayat river valley. We have implemented the study of the most complete complex of sites of the microregion, taking into account their spatial and archaeological context.

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