Golyeva A.A.   Vinokurov N.I.  

Landscapes of the northeastern part of the Crimean peninsula in the ancient era according to anthracological analysis (on the example of the town of Artesian)

Reporter: Golyeva A.A.

ABSTRACT: The ancient Artezian settlement is located in the northeast of the Crimean Peninsula in the steppe zone of the Azov Sea. It occupied the area of not less than 7 hectares and was located on the natural height between two water cut putlogs. During the antique period, the settlement has been operating since V-IV centuries BC up to the IV century AD, existing almost throughout the history of the Bosporan Kingdom. It was during the antique period that the impact of the town on the nearby landscapes was most intense, and during this period the town survived the war and at least two strong earthquakes.
For 10 years, charcoal was taken from the soil and cultural layers of the settlement, and anthracological analysis was carried out. In total, more than 700 samples were examined, which made it possible to consider the information obtained as statistically reliable. A significant amount of data made it possible to distribute them based on the known political (war) and natural (earthquakes) extreme periods in the life of the settlement.
A total of 17 different species of trees and shrubs were identified. More than half of all samples belonged to two broadleaf species: oak and elm (37 and 16%, respectively). The share of the rest was small, but among them there are chestnut, rosaceae, grapes, that is, plants associated with human economic activity. A correlation was found between the increase in the proportion of individual tree species and the history of the settlement, but oak always predominated.
The data obtained are consistent with the conclusions of other researchers in other regions of Crimea that modern steppe landscapes are of anthropogenic nature, thanks to massive long-term logging, starting from ancient times.

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